During their rule as emperors, the Palaiologoi were not well-liked by their subjects, mostly on account of their religious policy. Through the preceding century or so of Palaiologan marriages to other imperial families, his ancestry could be traced back to the three most recent dynasties that had ruled the empire before the Fourth Crusade (Doukas, Komnenos and Angelos). A 1455 document in which Cardinal Isidoro Ruteno grants indulgences to those who donate to a church in San Mauro Cilento mentions a "Ruggerio" as the son of "Tommaso Paleologo". This second origin story is similar to family traditions of other Byzantine noble families, such as the Doukas or Phokas clans, who also used stories of ancient Roman descent to bolster their prestige and somewhat legitimize their claims to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, the Roman Empire's medieval continuation. His only child, his daughter Helena, never married the sultan nor entered the sultan's harem, possibly because the sultan feared that she would poison him. The Paleologu also live in Malta and France, one of the most famous members of the family being the French diplomat Maurice Paléologue, who in his lifetime repeatedly asserted his imperial descent. Dotted lines indicate illegitimate offsprings. In the years that followed it was said that he was not dead but sleeping - the 'immortal emperor' turned to marble, who would one day be … Andronikos Palaiologos, father of the later emperor Michael VIII, was proclaimed megas domestikos (commander-in-chief), probably by Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes. Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople. [80] In addition to the non-imperial Palaiologoi that were descendants of older collateral lines, Byzantine genealogy is also made complicated by the fact that it was common in Byzantium to adopt the family name of your spouse or mother, if that was more prestigious. [81] Though such Palaiologoi, imperial or not, were mainly concentrated in northern Italy, such as in Pesaro, Viterbo or Venice, other Greek refugees travelled across Europe, many ending up in Rome, Naples, Milan, Paris or in various cities in Spain. While the genealogies of many supposedly surviving branches of the imperial dynasty can easily be dismissed as fantasy, others, such as the genealogy of a lineage from Pesaro which survived until at least the late 17th century, are more plausible. For 57 years, Constantinople had been under Catholic rule through the Latin Empire and now the easterners had once more asserted their right not only to the position of Roman emperor but also to a church independent of the one centered in Rome. Chronicle of the Fall of Constatinople : Brief History of Events in Constantinople during the Period 1440-1453, Georgiou Frantzi, Ioannis A. Melisseidis - translator : Ioannis A. Melisseidis, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou ) 1998/2004, Ekd.Vergina, Athens. Murad defeated Mustafa's rebellion and besieged Constantinople in 1422, though the Byzantines successfully repulsed him. άς/The Marble-Petrified King (music/video) on, Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (1204–1453), Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Byzantine Empire, Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Commons category without a link on Wikidata, WorldHeritage articles with VIAF identifiers, 21. [75] A modern lineage, called the Paleologo-Oriundi, descends from Flaminio, an illegitimate son of John George. [117] The potential Palaiologan heir being kept as a hostage in Italy agrees poorly with contemporary Byzantine-Aragonese relations and importantly, no Byzantine historians mentions his existence. [134], Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Encyclopaedia Britannica – Manuel II Palaeologus, "Eine Verfügung des Paläologen Chass Murad-Pasa von Mitte Regeb 876 = Dez./Jan. Découvrez des commentaires utiles de client et des classements de commentaires pour [The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans] (By: Donald M. Nicol) [published: May, 2002] sur Amazon.fr. [15] Even during the final decades of the Byzantine Empire, the Palaiologoi often found it difficult to cooperate with each other. That a Byzantine prince, born in the purple, would be sent to live among, and rule over, Latin barbarians,[64] was bad enough but there were also fears that he and his descendants might become 'Latinized'[65] and that the Italians, as a result of the Montferrat inheritance, could launch an invasion in the future in hopes of placing a Catholic Palaiologos on the Byzantine throne. [80] Numerous people with the last name Paleologus are recorded in Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries, many serving as stratioti (mercenary light-armed cavalrymen of Greek or Albanian origin). [90] The earliest record of John's existence other than Theodore's tombstone are the writings of the Greek scholar Leo Allatius, who wrote in 1648, too late for his works to be considered independent evidence. [108] Theodore was one of the key players in the Greek community in Venice, having helped the Greek refugees there achieve permission to construct the San Giorgio dei Greci church in the first place, and his family was highly regarded by the locals. John IV, the last representative of the imperial Laskaris dynasty, was pushed aside in order to consolidate the Palaiologos family on the throne. [24], In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. [116], In modern scholarship, Rogerio's existence is overwhelmingly dismissed as fantasy. … [69], Theodore's descendants, the Palaeologus-Montferrat family, ruled at Montferrat until the 16th century, though they were sometimes given Greek names, such as Theodore and Sophia,[70] most of the Palaiologan Marquises of Montferrat paid little attention to affairs in the eastern Mediterranean. He is not only remembered for being the last Byzantine Emperor who put up a brave last stand against the Ottomans, but also for his last speech to his officers and allies before the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 by Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. [75] The ancestry of the Paleologu can be traced to Greeks with the name Palaiologos, but not to the imperial family. [8] Theodore II died in that same year and was succeeded by his eight-year-old son John IV Laskaris. [71] The only Marquis to seriously consider using his Byzantine connection was Theodore's son, John II of Montferrat, who wished to take advantage of the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, between Andronikos II's great-grandson John V and John VI Kantakouzenos, in order to invade the empire and conquer Thessaloniki. Andreas attempted to sell his claims to various Byzantine titles to earn money, but since Manuel did not have any claims to sell (as he was the second son), he instead travelled around Europe hoping to enter into the service of some noble. Various lineages of Palaialogoi, whose relation to the medieval Palaiologoi and each other are unclear, survived into the modern period and thousands of people, particularly in Greece, still have the last name Palaiologos, or variants thereof, today. Étude généalogique et prosopographique", "SERRA DI CASSANO, Giuseppe in "Dizionario Biografico, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palaiologos&oldid=997274929, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 19:51. In 1320, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos attempted to disinherit his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, despite the death of Andronikos II's son, heir and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos (Andronikos III's father). [29], Thomas had four children; Helena, Zoe, Andreas and Manuel. Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos was born 8 February 1405 and died 29 May 1453, reigning as the last Byzantine Emperor.123 and was a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 until he died in battle during the Fall of Constantinople. On 1 January 1259, Michael was proclaimed as co-emperor at Nymphaion, probably without John IV being present. 21 July] 1868 – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 18 March 1913 to 11 June 1917 … [63], The Byzantine aristocracy were less than eager of sending one of Andronikos II's sons to claim Montferrat. [26] The ongoing civil war, and the possibility that Thomas could receive aid from the West since he had proclaimed the war against his brother as a holy war against the muslims, caused Mehmed to invade the Morea in 1460. [98] Theodore lived in England for the rest of his life and fathered six children,[99] whose fates were caught up in the English Civil War of 1642–1651. [22] To prevent aid coming from the Morea, now governed by Thomas and Demetrios, Mehmed II sent one of his generals, Turahan Bey (who had raided the Morea twice before) to devastate the peninsula. For the last Byzantine emperor, sometimes numbered this way, see Constantine XI Palaiologos. Rogerio was purportedly a judge and is said to have died in 1488,[113] survived by his wife Antonia and his two children John (or Giovanni) and Angela. Constantine XI died fighting in its defense. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. A gallant prince, he completed the conquest of the Peloponnesus from the Latins and heroically commanded the futile defense of Constantinople against the Turks. It is more likely that they originated significantly later in Anatolia since the earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, Nikephoros Palaiologos, served as a commander there in the second half of the 11th century. Many of his subjects had chastized him as a traitor and heretic while he lived and he, like many of his predecessors before him, died in communion with the Church of Rome. The delegation visited places in Italy where Palaiologoi were known to have resided and even came to Cornwall, where Theodore Paleologus had lived in the 17th century. [13] Bayezid's siege lasted for more than a decade, with Western aid through the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396) failing to stop the sultan. [49] The Tocco family, male-line descendants of Leonardo III and Milica Branković styled themselves as princes on the ground that they represented not only the senior descendants of the Byzantine imperial dynasty, but of the Serbian royal dynasty as well. The local authorities on Corfu were not eager to house the despot out of fear of provoking the Ottomans,[30] so Thomas soon left the island and travelled to Rome, hoping to convince Pope Pius II of calling for a crusade against the Ottomans. Constantine XI [1] Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 [2] [3] – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, [4] [5] [6] reigning as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople. [37] Whether he had any children is uncertain. There is no evidence that the final emperor, Constantine XI, ever repudiated the union achieved at Florence in 1439. [35] From the 1480s onwards, Andreas also claimed the title Imperator Constantinopolitanus ('Emperor of Constantinople'). [49][50] When the despotate fell to the Ottomans in 1479, Leonardo and his family escaped to Italy, where he continued to be recognized as the titular Despot of Epirus. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and the Byzantine empire. [93] The absence of any mentions of John Palaiologos in contemporary sources means that the Paleologus family's status as genuine male-line descendants of the last few Byzantine emperors can not be proven, but it is not impossible. [119] A 1489 census of San Mauro Cilento records no inhabitants with Byzantine surnames, though records a widow and daughter of "Quondam Princi de Rogerio Greco", someone subsequent censuses make clear left no further descendants. [88], The Paleologus family in Pesaro, attested from the early 16th century onwards, claimed descent from 'John Palaiologos', a purported third son of Thomas Palaiologos. The Byzantine Empire had fallen and the rulers of the Morea, Thomas and Demetrios, appeared more interested in their own rivalry than in organizing resistance against the Ottomans. Traductions en contexte de "constantine xi" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : He was succeeded by his younger brother Constantine XI, who became the last Emperor. [35] Andreas and Manuel soon faced financial problems, with the pension once provided to their father having been split between the two of them and constantly cut back by the Papacy. [68] Byzantine fears of Latinization became true; Theodore converted to Catholicism and on his visits to Constantinople, Theodore schocked the Byzantines with his shaven face and Western customs. His son Ferdinand Paleologus, escaping the war, settled on the recently colonized island of Barbados in the Caribbean, where he became known as the "Greek prince from Cornwall" and owned a cotton or sugar plantation. [41] Manuel had two sons; John Palaiologos, who died young, and Andreas,[42] probably named after Manuel's brother. Thomas Palaiologos was the youngest surviving son of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and his wife Helena Dragaš. A cadet branch in Italy, the Palaeologus-Montferrat, ruled the March of Montferrat until 1536 and died out in 1566. He married Theodora Tocco (?-1429) 1 July 1428 JL . Clearly intending to usurp the throne, a new series of civil wars from 1352 to 1357 were eventually won by John V, deposing the Kantakouzenoi. When his brother, Emperor John VIII Palaiologos, died childless, a dispute erupted between Constantine and his brother Demetrios Palaiologos over the throne. [38] A Fernando Palaiologos, referred to as the "son of the Despot of the Morea" by Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, in 1499 might also have been a son of Andreas. That Andronikos suffered from elephantiasis and epilepsy, and that he died at a young age, makes it unlikely that he married and had a son. [80], Many Byzantine refugees, though unrelated to the emperors, legitimately bore the name Palaiologos due to the extensive nature of the family. John V retook the throne in 1379 but reached an agreement with Andronikos in 1381, wherein Andronikos was to succeed him as emperor, passing over Manuel. Constantine Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Παλαιολόγος, romanized: Kōnstantinos Palaiologos; died 1508) was a 16th-century noble of Greek descent who served as a soldier in Italy. Because the family was extensive before it produced emperors, the name Palaiologos was legitimately held not only by nobles part of the actual imperial dynasty. [36], Andreas died poor in Rome in 1502. Constantine, with some 8… In 1478, Theodore travelled to Venice with his father, Paul, and became a stratiote. The Palaiologos (pl. [65], The final Palaeologus Marquis, John George, Marquis of Montferrat, died in 1533 and rule of Montferrat was then given to Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.[73] The last female member, Margaret Paleologa, married to Federico II, died in 1566, rendering the Montferrat cadet branch extinct. [124], During most of their tenure as Byzantine emperors, the Palaiologan dynasty was not well-liked by their subjects. [115], Another family which claims to descend from the old imperial dynasty are the Paleologu of Romania, claiming to be the descendants of an otherwise unattested son of Theodore II Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, called Emanuel Petrus (Manuel Petros in Greek). Read "Bibliographische Notizen und Mitteilungen, Byzantinische Zeitschrift" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at … 236 relations. He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. [128] When Michael VIII died in 1282 he died condemned as a traitor and a heretic by his people, who saw him as someone who had bullied them into submission under the Church of Rome. The Palaiologos (pl. Advances in science and the arts, referred to as the Palaiologan Renaissance, lasted throughout the dynasty's rule, encouraged by the efforts of some emperors such as Andronikos II and Manuel II. The Byzantine civil wars, and the collapse of Stefan Dušan's Serbian Empire following his death in 1355, had allowed the Ottoman Turks to expand almost unopposed through the Balkans and in the second half of the 14th century, the empire passed almost without a fight under Ottoman sovereignty, forced to pay tribute and offer military aid if needed. In 1382, the Kantakouzenoi were also driven out of the Morea (the modern-day Peloponnese) and John V's son Theodore was placed to govern it as the semi-independent Despot of the Morea, an important victory as the region was quickly becoming the most important Byzantine province. Their rule of the empire continued until 1453, when Ottoman sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople and the final Palaiologan emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, died in the city's defense. [111] The 1570 will of Demetri Paleologo, a son of Theodore, begins with "Io Demetri Palleollogo, da Constantinopoli ...". His brothers included the Byzantine emperors John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos, as well as Theodore II Palaiologos and Demetrios Palaiologos, Despots of the Morea, and Andronikos Palaiologos, Despot of Thessalonica. [1], When Andronikos III died in 1341, his underage son John V Palaiologos inherited the throne. His stay in Casalsottano is said to have attracted Byzantine refugees of other families, such as the Notaras and Komnenoi, to the hamlet in the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, and together they supposedly erected the Spirito Santo church, which still stands today. [48] Jelena died childless, but Milica married Leonardo III Tocco, the ruler of the Despotate of Epirus. [4] The earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, was Nikephoros Palaiologos, commander (possibly doux) of the Theme of Mesopotamia in the second half of the 11th century, in the reign of Emperor Michael VII Doukas. [114], Supposedly, Rogerio's descendants would then have remained in Casalsottano until 1571, when Giovanni Paleologo was given the fief of Perito and Ostigliano in Salerno. The sultan generously received him and Manuel stayed in Constantinople for the rest of his life. The role of the Palaiologoi as the final Christian dynasty to rule over Greek lands also accorded them a more positive remembrance among Greeks during the period of Ottoman rule. Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, reigning as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople. Their rule as Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from 1259 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. [57], Thomas's older brother Theodore II, who preceded him (and co-ruled with him for a time) as Despot of the Morea, had a daughter, Helena, who married King John II of Cyprus. The Popes in the immediate aftermath of the Latin Empire's fall pursued a policy of attempting to assert their religious authority over the Byzantine Empire. Their genealogy mainly derives from the tombstone of Theodore Paleologus (d. 1636), which lists Theodore's male-line ancestors five generations back, reaching Thomas. [79] Many of the non-imperial Byzantine Palaiologoi were part of the nobility and served as generals or powerful landowners. [1], Though most of the Palaiologan era was defined by decline and war, it was also an age of cultural flourishing, beginning in the late 13th century. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and Byzantium. [110] Theodore's descendants and relatives lived on in Venice and its territories long after his death. George served as the doux of Dyrrhachium in the reign of Alexios I and was accorded the title of kouropalates. Palaiologoi; Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. [44] He is last attested in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566)[45] and is not believed to have had children of his own. [10] After the recapture of the capital and the restoration of the Byzantine Empire, Michael took care to be crowned emperor in Hagia Sophia, as Byzantine emperors had been before the city was lost to the crusaders. Their only child to survive until adulthood, Charlotte, died childless in 1487. The Empress Helena, acting … Constantine XI Dragasēs Palaiologos, Despot of Morea, Byzantine Emperor, was born 8 February 1405 to Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-1425) and Jelena Dragaš (c1372-1450) and died 29 May 1453 of unspecified causes. In the meantime, John VI Kantakouzenos attempted to consolidate his own dynasty on the imperial throne, marrying his daughter Helena to John V and proclaiming his son Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperor. [1], By the 15th century, the Byzantine emperors had lost any real power, with the Ottoman sultans increasingly becoming the real regulators of political matters within the empire. [33], In Rome, the three children were taken care of by Cardinal Bessarion, also a Byzantine refugee. Death 1453-05-29. [127] Despite Michael VIII's efforts, the union was disrupted in 1281, after just seven years, when he was excommunicated by Pope Martin IV. [118] The "Rogerio Greco" mentioned as a judge in 1441 cannot be identified with the supposed progenitor of the Paleologo Mastrogiovanni line since it would have been impossible for him to have been a judge at only 11 years old. Their rule as Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from 1259 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The contemporary historian George Sphrantzes, who described the life of Thomas Palaiologos in detail, wrote on the birth of Andreas Palaiologos on 17 January 1453 that the boy was "a continuator and heir" of the Palaiologan lineage, a phrase which makes little sense if Andreas was not Thomas's first-born son. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Related Descriptions Virtual International Authority File WorldCat Identities LC Name Authority File Wikidata. Many Western rulers were conscious of their failure to prevent Byzantium's fall and welcomed these men at their courts. The famous Ivan the Terrible (r. 1547–1575), Russia's first Tsar, was Sophia's grandson. Demetrios drew support for his opposition to the union between the Orthodox and Catholic churches. [69] John II even petitioned the Papacy to recognize his claims to Thessaloniki and to the empire, and to help him conquer them. Theodora Palaiologina Angelina Kantakouzene, Great Martyr, the Emperor Blessed Constantine XI Paleologos, Georgios Frantzes, Ioannes A. Melisseides, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou, " Ealo I Polis, To Chronico tes halose tes Konstantinoupoles " ( Constantinople has Fallen. A 1463 document supposedly signed by King Ferdinand I of Aragon records the granting of some lands in the vicinity of San Mauro to Rogerio, son of "illustrissimi Thomae Palaeologi dispoti Moreae". Supposedly, he is to have stayed in Casalsottano, a hamlet of the Italian comune San Mauro Cilento, in a 15th-century building commonly referred to as the Palazzo ("the palace"). [2] Another version of the Palaiologos origin story maintained that they had ancient Roman origin and that they were descended from Romans who had travelled to Constantinople alongside Constantine the Great when the city was founded and designated as the Roman Empire's new capital in 330. [7] Though Michael continued to be mistrusted even after this, he married John III's grandniece Theodora Vatatzaina and was appointed as the megas konostaulos of the Latin mercenaries employed by the empire. Own contemporaries appear to have doubted their imperial descent the appointment of Joseph. 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